Late in 1851, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, Napoleon Bonaparte’s nephew, did not hesitate to put an end to the French National Assembly before declaring himself emperor the following year, taking the title of Napoleon III. Hoping to cement the memory of his uncle’s glories, Napoleon III was awarded the title of Emperor on December 2, the day Napoleon I was enthroned as Emperor at Notre Dame in 1804 and the forty-sixth anniversary of the Battle of Austerlitz, during which Bonaparte’s armies crushed Austrian and Russian forces.
The most important Bonaparte filter
And just like his uncle, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte had a history of achievement, crashing in 1870 on the rock of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck in the midst of the Franco-Prussian War that resulted in the declaration of German unity. In addition, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was born on April 20, 1808, the third son of Louis Bonaparte and Hortense de Beauharnais. With the death of Napoleon Bonaparte in exile on the island of Saint Helena in 1821 and the departure of his son Napoleon II from the world at an early age in 1832, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte became one of the most prominent Bonapartist candidates to claim the throne of France.
Taking advantage of growing popular support for Bonapartists, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte attempted to seize power by force in 1840. Failing to do so and aborting his coup d’état, the latter received a life sentence and was sent to a fortress important (Ham) from which he managed to escape, pretending to be a worker, to later move to England.
Overwhelming popular support for Napoleon III
With the establishment of the Second Republic, Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte returned to France and, after winning the elections of 1848, became the first president in French history thanks to the support of politician and historian Adolphe Thiers.
Meanwhile, the French president declared himself a defender of freedoms and the right to vote, and thus stood in the face of the National Assembly, which consisted mainly of royalist and Catholic representatives who united for fear of labor movements and revolutions in the country.
From the beginning, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte went to Rome in 1849 to help Pope Pius IX against the Republicans. This caused a state of division in the National Assembly, which voted between 1849 and 1850 on a number of laws that restricted freedom of the press and elections and exiled many of the participants in the 1848 revolution towards Algeria.
In addition, such bad decisions taken by the National Council contributed to polishing the image of Louis Napoleon III. And between the days of August 8 and November 12, 1850, the latter led a tour of French cities to promote himself. He took positions in support of the workers at times, and spoke of his sympathy and defense of religion and the right of property at other times. He also approached the army, telling them about reforms and military heroism. During a parade at the Satory, the soldiers did not hesitate to shout “Long live the emperor” in celebration of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte.
In early November 1851, the French President submitted a request to the National Assembly to lift restrictions on the right to vote. With their refusal to do so, the National Assembly deputies won the Republicans’ animosity.
During the night between December 1 and 2, 1851, supporters of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte met at the Elysee Palace and signaled the beginning of the transition of power. As the Duke of Morny set out to seize the Ministry of the Interior, Colonel d’Espinasse, accompanied by a legion, set out for the Palais Bourbon. Under the auspices of the security forces, the workers of the National Printing Press printed posters that were hung on the walls of the capital.
The next morning, the Parisians read these commentaries, which officially announced the dissolution of the National Assembly, the restoration of the right to vote, and the declaration of a state of emergency.
On December 20, 1851, France was on a date with a popular referendum in which the overwhelming majority of the French supported the measures on December 2 and granted Louis Napoleon Bonaparte the powers to prepare a new constitution for the country. Thanks to this, the Second Republic came to an end, with the emergence the following year, the Second Empire.